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La Gerusalemme Liberata by Tasso, Hardcover
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A Manual of Italian Literature by Francis Henry Cliffe - Free Ebook
Delivery Options see all. Free Shipping. Boethius, in prison in Pavia and awaiting execution, writes the Consolation of Philosophy.
Go to Boethius c. By the end of his long reign Theodoric amply justifies his title 'the Great' and his place in legend as Dietrich von Bern. St Benedict founds a monastery at Monte Cassino and writes a Rule for the monks which becomes the basis of the Benedictine order. Belisarius lands in Sicily at the start of a five-year campaign to recover Ravenna for the Byzantine emperor. Justinian and Theodora, each with a retinue of attendants, face each other in mosaic from the walls of San Vitale in Ravenna. The Lombards invade northern Italy, and within four years occupy it as far south as the Po.
Fugitives from the Lombard invasion of northern Italy take refuge on islands in the Venetian lagoon - and become the founders of Venice. Byzantine Italy is brought under a new administration, or exarchate, based in Ravenna. Go to Exarchate in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages 1 ed. Pope Gregory I negotiates with the Lombards who are threatening Rome.
Go to Gregory I, St c.
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St Columban founds a monastery at Bobbio, the furthest outpost of Celtic Christianity. The Venetians for the first time elect their own doge, acting independently of the Byzantine governor in Ravenna. Go to doge in A Dictionary of World History 2 ed. After two campaigns in Lombardy, Charlemagne establishes himself as king of the Lombards in northern Italy.
The Venetians move their administration from the island of Torcello to the Rialto. The Arabs get a foothold in Sicily and begin a slow process, not complete till AD , of squeezing the Byzantines out of the island. The Venetians, acquiring from Alexandria some bones believed to be those of St Mark, build St Mark's to house the valuable relic. Medieval Europe's first institute of higher education is established, with the founding of the medical school at Salerno.
Pope Gregory VII decrees that only the church may make ecclesiastical appointments, thus initiating the investiture controversy between pope and emperor. The emperor Henry IV stands as a penitent outside the pope's castle at Canossa, so as to be released from excommunication. Venice acquires valuable trading privileges from Constantinople, her merchants being excused all dues and customs in the Byzantine empire.
Roger I, the first Norman count of Sicily, completes the conquest of the island from the Muslims. Many of the towns of northern Italy acquire virtual independence as self-governing communes. Work begins on the exquisite palace chapel in Palermo, built for the Norman kings of Sicily. Go to Palermo in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Pope Innocent III and the second Lateran council outlaw the crossbow as a weapon causing unacceptable devastation. Go to Eugenius III d. The Medici move into Florence from their country home in the Mugello valley.
ITALIAN STUDIES: HUMANISM AND THE RENAISSANCE
In the cathedral on Torcello, and in St Mark's, Venetian mosaics are a culmination in the west of the Byzantine tradition. The fleet of the fourth crusade departs from Venice - only to be diverted from its purposes by Venetian guile. Venice takes the useful islands of Corfu and Crete as part of the spoils of the fourth crusade.
A Latin empire is set up in Constantinople on the same basis as the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem. Many of the treasures adorning the church of San Marco in Venice are loot taken from Constantinople during the fourth crusade. St Francis and eleven companions tell Innocent III of their wish for a life of holy poverty in the bustle of the towns. Participants in the Children's Crusade suffer disaster after the waters of the Mediterranean fail to part for them. St Dominic and his companions tell Innocent III of their wish to teach and preach in the bustle of the towns.
Go to Dominic, St c. Gregory IX sends Dominican friars to root out the remains of the Catharist heresy in France, thus launching the Inquisition. Go to Gregory IX c. The Palio, in which horses race round the Campo in Siena, is held from this time. Construction begins of two basilicas, one above the other on a hillside in Assisi, in memory of St Francis. The pope, eager to fill the vacant throne of Sicily, offers it to a son of Henry III of England but gets no firm response.
Pope Alexander IV establishes a third order of preaching friars, the Augustinians. Nicola Pisano completes a pulpit for Pisa, borrowing details from Roman sarcophagi - an early example of a new interest in the classical past. Go to Pisano, Nicola c. A new form of poetry is written in northern Italy, described later by Dante as a sweet new style - the dolce stil nuovo. Thomas Aquinas begins the outstanding work of medieval scholasticism, his Summa Theologiae. Marco Polo, aged seventeen, sets off from Venice on his journey to the east.
Go to Polo, Marco c. Dante, aged nine, is overwhelmed by the beauty of Beatrice - a child a year younger than himself who later becomes his poetic inspiration. An incident in a church service sparks the uprising known as the Sicilian Vespers, in which French are killed overnight in Sicily. Marco Polo is back in Venice after an absence of 25 years in the east. The authorities in Siena publish strict regulations for the design of the buildings around a new central piazza, the Campo.
Go to Siena in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Marco Polo, in prison in Genoa, is persuaded by a fellow prisoner to narrate his adventures. The Italian communes employ powerful leaders, or signori , in a trend which leads away from oligarchy and towards princely rule. The bankers of northern Italy develop a method of accountancy - double-entry book-keeping - which will have lasting significance. Go to double-entry book-keeping in A Dictionary of Accounting 4 ed. Dante, a member of the White faction in Florence, is sentenced to death by the Blacks - and never returns to his native city.
Enrico degli Scrovegni employs Giotto to paint the cycle of frescoes in his chapel in Padua. Go to Giotto c. Dante, in exile from Florence, begins work on The Divine Comedy - completing it just before his death, 14 years later. Clement V moves the papacy to Avignon, in a move which is expected to be temporary but which lasts for nearly seventy years.
In places such as Siena and Orvieto, Italian architects add a blaze of colour to the more restrained northern pattern of Gothic. Florence becomes a centre of international finance, with the Bardi and Peruzzi families acting as bankers to Europe's rulers. Petrarch glimpses Laura in a church in Avignon and falls helplessly in love with her - or so he tells us. The Doge's Palace, begun in its present form in this year, is only one of the spectacular beauties of Venetian Gothic.
A laurel wreath is placed on the brow of Petrarch in Rome, in a renewal of interest in the classical world. The bridge now known as Ponte Vecchio is constructed in Florence replacing an older old bridge. Go to Florence in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Go to Bruce, Edward d. Cola di Rienzo, appointed tribune of the people, enjoys a few months of dictatorial powers in Rome before the citizens tire of him.