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Those who strongly desire to be in a peer group and do not experience a sense of group belonging are expected to have the greatest social distress and are likely to report the most behavior problems. A sense of belonging to a social peer group can enhance students academic achievement.

J. Roy and the Human Condition

At a college level, a better sense of belonging has been linked to perceived professor caring and greater involvement in campus organizations. In a study exploring associations between a sense of school belonging and academic and psychological adjustment, Pittman and Richmond found that college students who reported a greater sense of belonging at a college level, were doing better academically and felt more competent scholastically but also had a higher self-worth and lower levels of externalizing problems. However, students who were having problems with their relationships with friends, were found to experience more internalizing behaviors and feel less connected to the college.

Schools are important developmental contexts for children and adolescents, and influence their socio-emotional and academic development. One approach used to study naturally occurring peer groups is the social cognitive mapping SCM.

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Therefore, determining patterns of observed social affiliations. The sense of connection within a classroom has been defined as having a sense of classroom belonging. Meaning, students feel they are being valued accepted, included and encouraged by others in the classroom setting. They perceive themselves to be an important part of the setting and activity of the class. Whilst some scholars believe the terms can be used interchangeably, others construe belonging as something different.

A sense of school belonging has been associated with greater overall well being and happiness, as well as outcomes related to academic achievement. There are a number of similar concepts centered around school belonging, including school bonding, student engagement, school attachment, school community, school climate, orientation to school, and school connectedness. School is a student's attachment to their school.

Student engagement was explored by Finn [28] in the two-dimensional model, conceptualizing engagement as having two components — participation and identification. Participation refers to behavior, whilst identification relates to affect or a sense of belonging. While school attachment involves a student's connection to school, school community incorporates belonging, meaning that in order to be a part of any community including a school community , a person first needs to have feelings of belonging [29].

Blum and Libbey [30] characterize school connectedness as a student's perception that teachers, along with other adults in the school community, show a concern for the pupils' learning, pay attention to who the student is as an individual, and also have high academic expectations. Furthermore, school connectedness involves a student having a sense of safety at school as well as positive student-teacher relationships.

Despite the slight differences in meaning, these terms commonly include three aspects: they refer to school-based relationships and experiences, they involve the relationship between students and teachers, and they include a student's general feelings about school as a whole. A large number of variables have been found to be significantly associated with school belonging. This has made it difficult to present a theoretical model of school belonging.

A comprehensive meta-analysis [27] uncovered 10 themes that influence school belonging at the student level during adolescence in educational settings:. The meta-analysis found that teacher support and positive personal characteristics are the strongest predictors of school belonging [27].

However, school belonging is slightly different. Schools can help students to develop a sense of belonging because they are in a position to develop social networks. Every child is at the center of multiple levels of influence. It has been argued that a social-ecological lens is the most adequate lens with which to view the construct of school belonging, given the large number of variables at play, and also the unique nature of school belonging for both the individual and the school.

At school, students are a part of a greater whole influenced by both formal and informal groupings, and overarching systems that are common and typically represented within all schools. Thus, school belonging can be conceptualized as a multi-layered, socio-ecological phenomena, consisting of several interacting layers.

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This is depicted in the figure. The innermost layer of the construct is the individual level. This describes the unique student characteristics that contribute to the sense of belonging, including personality and mental health. The micro-system refers to network an individual has that are informal, such as family, friends, teachers, and peers with whom the student interacts with.

The mesosystem refers to organisational factors, including school resources, processes, policies, rules and practices. The exosystem refers to the broader school community. Finally, the macro-system involves the legislation, history and social climate of a society.


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This socio-ecological framework has been developed from empirical studies, and provides schools with a thorough direction in which to foster school belonging. Given that school belonging is largely about perception, social belonging interventions such as those suggested by Walton and Brady [32] have therefore been found to be useful.

They argue that these interventions provide students with an adaptive lens with which to make sense of adversities in school. For minority students, challenges at school can give rise to feelings of non-belonging. One such social intervention described by Walton and Brady sees stories used, whereby difficulties at school are portrayed as a normal part of education.

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One group that may have the feelings of non-belonging that challenges can lead to, is those of a racial minority. The students who are from minority groups may attribute challenges — both academic and otherwise — to their racial identity. Social support is essential for improving belonging, most especially for students from minority backgrounds for whom acceptance by peers, teachers and parents is an important behavior of pro-social behavior and a positive attitude towards school.

The need to belong is especially evident in the workplace. Employees want to fit in at work as much as students want to fit in at school. They seek the approval and acceptance of leaders, bosses, and other employees. Charismatic leaders are especially known to show off organizational citizenship behaviors such as helping and compliance if they feel a sense of belongingness with their work group.

Researchers found that charisma and belongingness increased cooperative behavior among employees.

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Organizational citizenship behaviors are employee activities that benefit the collective group without the individual gaining any direct benefit. Helping is a huge component of organizational citizenship behaviors because helping involves voluntarily assisting others with problems that are work-related and preventing other issues from arising. Task performance is enhanced and supported when the acts of helping in a work environment are established and evident.

Charismatic leaders set a striking example for the way to organization should behave by reinforcing certain rules and values for the organization. These self-confident leaders inspire their followers to exceed expectations for the collective group instead of their own self-interest.

This in turn gives employees an identity with which to belong. A sense of belongingness increases a person's willingness to assist others in the group by the group rules. Belongingness and group membership encourages social groups with motivation to comply, cooperate, and help. Cohesive work groups show more consideration, report positive relationships within the group and elicits more organizational citizenship behaviors. Also, an already cohesive and collective group makes people more inclined to comply with the rules of the workplace. People are more receptive to a leader who provides a clear sense of direction and inspiration with the promise of a better future.

Workers who feel more isolated in the workplace feel the need to belong even more than those who are not isolated because they are missing that collective feeling of unity.

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A workplace functions better as a collective whole. The need to belong is among the most fundamental of all personality processes. Given the negative consequences of social rejection , people developed traits that function to encourage acceptance and to prevent rejection. But if the need to belong evolved to provide people with a means of meeting their basic needs for survival and reproduction based on evolutionary experiences, thwarting the need to belong should affect a variety of outcomes.

Because it strikes at the core of human functioning, people respond very strongly to social exclusion. Both interpersonal rejection and acceptance are psychologically powerful events. Feeling disliked, excluded, unappreciated, or devalued can stir up negative emotions in an individual. Some of these negative emotions include a lower self-esteem, aggressive actions and antisocial behavior. However, believing you are liked, included, appreciated, or valued elicits feelings of higher self-esteem and confidence boosts.

A different number of events can lead individuals to feel accepted versus rejected. We can simply see the power of interpersonal acceptance and rejection when accepted vs. However, in all examples, people's feelings begin from perceived relational evaluation.

Perceived relational evaluation is the degree to which you perceive others value having a relationship with you. You feel more accepted if another person or group regards your relationship with them as real and as important to them as it is to you. If they consider the relationship unimportant, you feel rejected and respond negatively. In a series of experiments, Buckley, Winkel, and Leary found that the effects of rejection are more potent than the effects of acceptance because negative feelings can cause more feelings of hurt and pain, which in turn can lead to aggression and negative behaviors.

They also found people's reactions to extreme and moderate rejection were similar, suggesting that once one has been rejected by an individual or group, the severity of the rejection is less important [35]. Procedural justice, in terms of belongingness, according to van Prooijen and colleagues , is the process by which people judge their level of belongingness in terms of their ability to contribute to a group.

In other words, a person is more likely to believe and support fairness decisions made by members of an ingroup in which they feel like they are a part of, compared to an ingroup in which they do not feel as strongly connected. De Cremer and Blader found that when people feel a heightened sense of belongingness, they process information about procedural justice in a more careful and systematic way. Fairness principles are applied when belongingness needs are met.

Van Prooojen and colleagues found that fairness maintains an individual's sense of inclusion in social groups. Relationships are highly valued within groups, so members of those groups seek out fairness cues so they can understand these relationships. De Cremer and colleagues suggest that individuals with a high need to belong care more about procedural fairness information and therefore pay closer attention to incoming information. Furthermore, Cornelis, Van Hiel, De Cremer and Mayer propose that leaders of a group are likely to be more fair when they are aware that the followers of the group have a high need to belong versus a low need to belong.

Leaders are also more fair in congruence with the amount of empathy they feel for followers. Empathetic leaders are more likely to pay attention to differences among followers, and to consider a follower's belongingness needs when making decisions. Leaders that are attracted to their followers and to the group are motivated by the follower's need to belong to allow them a greater voice in the group.

In all cultures, the need to belong is prevalent. Although there are individual differences in the intensity and strength of how people express and satisfy the need, it is really difficult for culture to eradicate the need to belong. Conformity is so important in collectivist societies that nonconformity can represent deviance in Circum-Mediterranean cultures , yet represent uniqueness in Sinosphere culture.

Individuals in other countries strive to belong so much that being exiled or shunned from their society is the biggest dishonor. Motivation to belong varies throughout different cultures, and can effect student achievement in distinct ways. In studies comparing fifteen year old students from 31 countries, the differences between Eastern and Western cultures were apparent.


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It is important to note that the study is in the perspective of dividing these countries into two groups.